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Route

Route

Routes are perhaps the most important part of a React Router app. They couple URL segments to components, data loading and data mutations. Through route nesting, complex application layouts and data dependencies become simple and declarative.

Routes are objects passed to the router creation functions:

const router = createBrowserRouter([
  {
    // it renders this element
    element: <Team />,

    // when the URL matches this segment
    path: "teams/:teamId",

    // with this data loaded before rendering
    loader: async ({ request, params }) => {
      return fetch(
        `/fake/api/teams/${params.teamId}.json`,
        { signal: request.signal }
      );
    },

    // performing this mutation when data is submitted to it
    action: async ({ request }) => {
      return updateFakeTeam(await request.formData());
    },

    // and renders this element in case something went wrong
    errorElement: <ErrorBoundary />,
  },
]);

You can also declare your routes with JSX and createRoutesFromElements, the props to the element are identical to the properties of the route objects:

const router = createBrowserRouter(
  createRoutesFromElements(
    <Route
      element={<Team />}
      path="teams/:teamId"
      loader={async ({ params }) => {
        return fetch(
          `/fake/api/teams/${params.teamId}.json`
        );
      }}
      action={async ({ request }) => {
        return updateFakeTeam(await request.formData());
      }}
      errorElement={<ErrorBoundary />}
    />
  )
);

Neither style is discouraged and behavior is identical. For the majority of this doc we will use the JSX style because that's what most people are accustomed to in the context of React Router.

Type declaration

interface RouteObject {
  path?: string;
  index?: boolean;
  children?: React.ReactNode;
  caseSensitive?: boolean;
  id?: string;
  loader?: LoaderFunction;
  action?: ActionFunction;
  element?: React.ReactNode | null;
  errorElement?: React.ReactNode | null;
  handle?: RouteObject["handle"];
  shouldRevalidate?: ShouldRevalidateFunction;
}

path

The path pattern to match against the URL to determine if this route matches a URL, link href, or form action.

Dynamic Segments

If a path segment starts with : then it becomes a "dynamic segment". When the route matches the URL, the dynamic segment will be parsed from the URL and provided as params to other router APIs.

<Route
  // this path will match URLs like
  // - /teams/hotspur
  // - /teams/real
  path="/teams/:teamId"
  // the matching param will be available to the loader
  loader={({ params }) => {
    console.log(params.teamId); // "hotspur"
  }}
  // and the action
  action={({ params }) => {}}
  element={<Team />}
/>;

// and the element through `useParams`
function Team() {
  let params = useParams();
  console.log(params.teamId); // "hotspur"
}

You can have multiple dynamic segments in one route path:

<Route path="/c/:categoryId/p/:productId" />;
// both will be available
params.categoryId;
params.productId;

Dynamic segments cannot be "partial":

  • 🚫 "/teams-:teamId"
  • βœ… "/teams/:teamId"
  • 🚫 "/:category--:productId"
  • βœ… "/:productSlug"

You can still support URL patterns like that, you just have to do a bit of your own parsing:

function Product() {
  const { productSlug } = useParams();
  const [category, product] = productSlug.split("--");
  // ...
}

Splats

Also known as "catchall" and "star" segments. If a route path pattern ends with /* then it will match any characters following the /, including other / characters.

<Route
  // this path will match URLs like
  // - /files
  // - /files/one
  // - /files/one/two
  // - /files/one/two/three
  path="/files/*"
  // the matching param will be available to the loader
  loader={({ params }) => {
    console.log(params["*"]); // "one/two"
  }}
  // and the action
  action={({ params }) => {}}
  element={<Team />}
/>;

// and the element through `useParams`
function Team() {
  let params = useParams();
  console.log(params["*"]); // "one/two"
}

You can destructure the *, you just have to assign it a new name. A common name is splat:

let { org, "*": splat } = params;

Layout Routes

TODO: expand with example

Omitting the path makes this route a "layout route". It participates in UI nesting, but it does not add any segments to the URL.

index

Determines if the route is an index route. Index routes render into their parent's Outlet at their parent's URL (like a default child route).

<Route path="/teams" element={<Teams />}>
  <Route index element={<TeamsIndex />} />
  <Route path=":teamId" element={<Team />} />
</Route>

These special routes can be confusing to understand at first, so we have a guide dedicated to them here: Index Route.

children

(TODO: need to talk about nesting, maybe even a separate doc)

caseSensitive

Instructs the route to match case or not:

<Route caseSensitive path="/wEll-aCtuA11y" />
  • Will match "wEll-aCtuA11y"
  • Will not match "well-actua11y"

loader

The route loader is called before the route renders and provides data for the element through useLoaderData.

<Route
  path="/teams/:teamId"
  loader={({ params }) => {
    return fetchTeam(params.teamId);
  }}
/>;

function Team() {
  let team = useLoaderData();
  // ...
}

If you are not using a Data router, this will do nothing

Please see the loader documentation for more details.

action

The route action is called when a submission is sent to the route from a Form, fetcher, or submission.

<Route
  path="/teams/:teamId"
  action={({ request }) => {
    const formData = await request.formData();
    return updateTeam(formData);
  }}
/>

If you are not using a Data router, this will do nothing

Please see the action documentation for more details.

element

The element to render when the route matches the URL.

<Route path="/for-sale" element={<Properties />} />

errorElement

When a route throws an exception while rendering, in a loader or in an action, this element will render instead of the normal element.

<Route
  path="/for-sale"
  // if this throws an error while rendering
  element={<Properties />}
  // or this while loading properties
  loader={() => loadProperties()}
  // or this while creating a property
  action={async ({ request }) =>
    createProperty(await request.formData())
  }
  // then this element will render
  errorElement={<ErrorBoundary />}
/>

If you are not using a Data router, this will do nothing

Please see the errorElement documentation for more details.

Docs and examples CC 4.0
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